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Passive Investing versus Active Investing: What’s Best For You?

While passive investing offers many advantages, it is not universally superior to active investing. However, many investors seeking long-term and cost-effective growth choose passive investing.

So, you’re ready to start investing but have wondered what approach is best for you?

Keep reading to choose the best strategy based on your goals and preferences.

Passive Investing versus Active Investing Overview

Passive investing is a strategy where investors buy a portfolio of assets and hold them long-term with the aim of matching, rather than outperforming, market indexes, while active investing involves frequent trading and a hands-on approach in an attempt to outperform the market.

Passive investing might be considered superior due to its simplicity, lower costs, and historically competitive performance. These benefits make passive investing particularly appealing to those who seek a simple, cost-effective approach to achieving broad market exposure and building wealth over time.

Let’s break it down.

What is Active Investing?

Active investing is a hands-on strategy in which investors make specific investment decisions with the goal of outperforming an investment benchmark. Unlike passive investors, who invest in index funds or ETFs to mirror the market’s performance, active investors use research, market forecasts, and their own judgment to trade stocks in an effort to garner higher returns than those of the market or a specific benchmark.

Active investors might use the following strategies:

  • Stock Picking: Choosing individual stocks based on analyzing their potential to outperform the broader market.
  • Market Timing: Attempting to predict market moves and adjust the portfolio accordingly by buying or selling assets.

Active investing requires significant expertise, time, and resources to analyze market data and make informed decisions. It also carries the risk of human error and the potential for emotional decision-making.

Despite these risks, many investors pursue active investing with the goal of achieving returns that exceed those of passive benchmarks.

What is Passive Investing?

Passive investing is an investment strategy focused on achieving long-term appreciation by mimicking the performance of a specific index rather than trying to outperform it. This strategy relies on the premise that the market will provide positive returns over time.

In passive investing, investors typically buy index funds or exchange-traded funds (ETFs) that track a market index. These funds hold all (or a representative sample) of the securities in the index, aiming to replicate its performance.

The investor’s role is mostly limited to initial fund selection and investing capital, after which they take a hands-off approach, avoiding the frequent buying and selling that characterizes active management.

Benefits of Passively Investing

Passive investing offers several key benefits over active investing.

  1. Lower Costs: Passive funds, such as index funds and ETFs, typically have lower expense ratios than actively managed funds. Since they aim to replicate the performance of an index rather than outperform it, they incur fewer transaction costs and require less research and analysis.
  2. Historical Performance: Over long periods, many passive funds have outperformed a significant percentage of their actively managed counterparts. While there are exceptions, the consistency of passive funds’ performance is a key selling point.
  3. Simplicity: Passive investing offers a straightforward approach to building a diversified portfolio without the need to analyze individual stocks or market timing.
  4. Ease of Access: Passive funds are widely available to investors and can often be purchased without a financial advisor or broker.

While passive investing offers many advantages, it is not universally superior to active investing. However, many investors seeking long-term and cost-effective growth choose passive investing. In fact, many in the financial independence movement emphasize passive investing as a key strategy to reaching FIRE.

Steps to Start Passive Investing

Starting to invest passively is a straightforward process. Here are the key steps:

Step 1: Set Clear Investment Goals

Define your financial goals, whether for retirement, home savings, or wealth-building. Your goals will influence your investment strategy, risk tolerance, and time horizon.

Investment GoalStrategyRisk ToleranceTime Horizon
RetirementInvest in a diversified portfolio of stocks, bonds, and other assets to generate income and growth over the long term. Consider a mix of growth-oriented and income-generating investments based on retirement age and lifestyle expectations.Moderate to HighLong-term (10+ years)
Saving for a HomeFocus on relatively conservative investments with stable returns to preserve capital for a specific short-to-medium-term goal. Consider low-risk options like high-yield savings accounts, short-term bonds, or conservative balanced funds.Low to ModerateShort-to-Medium term (1-5 years)
Building WealthPursue a growth-oriented investment strategy with a higher allocation to equities and potentially riskier assets to maximize long-term wealth accumulation. Emphasize long-term capital appreciation over income generation.HighLong-term (10+ years)

Step 2: Open an Investment Account

Choose a reputable brokerage firm or robo-advisor where you can open an account to start investing.

Find an online brokerage in the marketplace.

Choose a ProviderSelect a reputable brokerage firm or robo-advisor to open an investment account. Consider factors such as fees, investment options, customer service, and reputation.
Account TypesDetermine the type of investment account that aligns with your goals and situation. Options include taxable brokerage accounts, Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs), and employer-sponsored retirement accounts like 401(k)s.

Depending on your situation, this could be a taxable brokerage account, an IRA, or a 401(k).

Taxable Brokerage AccountA taxable brokerage account allows you to invest in a wide range of securities, including stocks, bonds, ETFs, and mutual funds. Earnings and capital gains in these accounts are subject to taxation. They offer flexibility in terms of contribution limits and withdrawal options.
Individual Retirement Account (IRA)IRAs are tax-advantaged retirement accounts that allow individuals to save for retirement. Traditional IRAs offer tax-deferred growth, meaning you don’t pay taxes on gains until you withdraw funds in retirement. Roth IRAs provide tax-free growth, allowing you to withdraw contributions and earnings tax-free in retirement. Contribution limits and eligibility criteria apply.
Employer-Sponsored Retirement Account (e.g., 401(k))401(k) plans are retirement accounts offered by employers. These accounts allow employees to contribute a portion of their pre-tax income, which grows tax-deferred until retirement. Some employers may offer matching contributions, providing an additional incentive to participate. Contribution limits, investment options, and withdrawal rules vary by plan.

Step 3: Select Your Investments

Choose a diversified mix of index funds or ETFs. Typically, a passive portfolio includes funds that track major stock and bond market indexes.

Investment TypeDescriptionExample Funds
Stock Market Index FundsThese funds track the performance of a specific stock market index, such as the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones Industrial Average. They offer broad exposure to the equity market.– Vanguard Total Stock Market Index Fund (VTSAX)
– SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (SPY)
– iShares Russell 2000 ETF (IWM)
Bond Market Index FundsBond market index funds track the performance of a specific bond index, providing exposure to various types of bonds, such as government, corporate, or municipal bonds.– Vanguard Total Bond Market Index Fund (VBTLX)
– iShares Core U.S. Aggregate Bond ETF (AGG)
– Schwab U.S. Aggregate Bond ETF (SCHZ)
International Equity FundsThese funds invest in stocks of companies located outside the United States, providing diversification across global markets.– Vanguard Total International Stock Index Fund (VTIAX)
– Schwab International Equity ETF (SCHF)
Sector-Specific ETFsSector-specific ETFs focus on specific sectors of the economy, such as technology, healthcare, or energy. They allow investors to target areas of the market they believe will perform well.– Technology Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLK)
– Health Care Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLV)
– Energy Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLE)

Step 4: Automate Your Investments

Set up automatic contributions to your investment account to invest consistently and take advantage of dollar-cost averaging, which involves investing a fixed amount regularly, regardless of market fluctuations.

Set up Automatic ContributionsArrange with your brokerage firm or investment provider to automatically transfer a fixed amount of money from your bank account to your investment account regularly.
FrequencyChoose the frequency of automatic contributions, such as weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly, depending on your preferences and cash flow.
Fixed AmountDetermine the fixed amount you want to invest regularly. This ensures consistent contributions regardless of market conditions.
Dollar-Cost AveragingDollar-cost averaging involves investing the same amount at regular intervals, allowing you to buy more shares when prices are low and fewer shares when prices are high.

For example, Mike wants to set up automatic contributions for his investment account to take advantage of dollar-cost averaging.

  • Set up Automatic Contributions: Mike arranges with his brokerage firm to automatically transfer $500 from his bank account to his investment account every two weeks.
  • Frequency: Mike selects a bi-weekly frequency for his automatic contributions to coincide with his pay schedule.
  • Fixed Amount: Mike commits to investing $500 consistently every two weeks, ensuring a regular investment pattern regardless of market conditions.
  • Dollar-Cost Averaging: With dollar-cost averaging, Mike smooths out market volatility by investing a fixed amount at regular intervals. This strategy helps him avoid the stress of trying to time the market and allows him to accumulate shares over time.

Stay 5: Stay Informed, Review, and Patient

Review your investment goals, performance, and strategy at least once a year to ensure they remain aligned with your long-term objectives.

Keep up with financial news and understand the factors that may impact your investments, but avoid reacting to short-term market fluctuations. Remember, passive investing is a long-term strategy.

Will you choose passive investing?

Jason Vitug

Jason Vitug is a bestselling author, entrepreneur, and founder of and His purpose to help others live their best lives through experiential and purposeful living. Jason is also a certified yoga teacher and breathwork specialist and has traveled to over 40 countries.

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